Rutile is a titanium oxide mineral with a chemical composition of TiO2. It is found in igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks throughout the world. Rutile also occurs as needle-shaped crystals in other minerals. Rutile has a high specific gravity and is often concentrated by stream and wave action in “heavy mineral sands” that exist today in both onshore and offshore deposits. Much of the world’s rutile production is mined from these sands. Rutile is used as an ore of titanium, it is crushed into a white powder that is used as a pigment in paints, and it is processed for use in a multitude of products. Networks of needle-shaped rutile crystals produce the “eyes” and “stars” in many gems, such as star ruby and star sapphire - ""