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Olivine is the name of a group of rock-forming minerals that are typically found in mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks such as basalt, gabbro, dunite, diabase, and peridotite. They are usually green in colour and have compositions that typically range between Mg2SiO4 and Fe2SiO4. Many people are familiar with olivine because it is the mineral of a very popular green gemstone known as peridot. Most olivine found at Earth's surface is in dark-coloured igneous rocks. It usually crystallizes in the presence of plagioclase and pyroxene to form gabbro or basalt. These types of rocks are most common at divergent plate boundaries and at hot spots within the centres of tectonic plates - ""

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